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TCP/ IP Applications

The highest-level protocols within the TCP/IP protocol stack are application protocols. They communicate with applications on other internet hosts and are the user-visible interface to the TCP/IP protocol suite. All application protocols have some characteristics in common: They can be user-written applications or applications standardized and shipped with the TCP/IP product. Indeed, the TCP/IP protocol suite includes application protocols such ...

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TCP/IP Protocol Suite

  The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite is the engine for the Internet and networks worldwide. Its simplicity and power has led to its becoming the single network protocol of choice in the world today. The architectural model of TCP/IP protocol suite is named for two of its important protocols which are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet ...

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Networking Command Line Tools

Windows operating system has various in-built command line tools. These are some of the tools network administrators used for troubleshooting and also to retrieve information. PING Checks if you can connect to another server / computer It basically sends a couple of packets that get bounced or echoed off the computer back to your computer. It will then tell you ...

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OSI Model Layers Organization

  The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) can be divided into three subgroups. The first three layers 1, 2, and 3 are the network support layers which deal with the physical aspects of moving data from one device to another device. The next layers 5, 6, and 7 are the user support layers which allow interoperability among unrelated software systems. And ...

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Overview Of OSI Reference Model

Before 1990 the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model dominated data communications and networking. The OSI model was not fully implemented. The TCP / IP protocol suite became the dominant commercial architecture because it was used and tested extensively in the Internet.  The International Standards Organization (ISO) which was established in 23 February 1947 is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide ...

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Network Architecture: Design Issues For Layers

1. The layers must have a mechanism for connection establishment. Network usually has more than one computer some of them have multiple processes a way is needed for a process on one machine to specify where it wants to establish a connection. Having multiple destinations they should be a form of addressing in order to specify a destination. 2. Mechanisms ...

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Network Architecture

Computer networks are designed in a highly structured way. Some of the structuring techniques are discuss here. Protocol Hierarchies To reduce their complex design most networks are organized as a series of layers or levels, each one built upon its predecessor. The number of layers, name, content, and function of each layer differs from network to network.  In all networks, ...

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Network Structures

There is collection of machines for running application programs in any network which called Hosts. The Hosts are associated by the subnet. The role of the subnet is to convey messages from host to host. In many Wide Area Networks, the subnet comprises of two particular components which are Transmission Lines and Switching Elements. Transmission Lines (also known as circuits, ...

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Introduction To Computer Networking

Networks enhance the computer’s ability to exchange, preserve, and protect information. Networks make it easier to share expensive hardware and software.   Before networks, you have to personally move the information around; it could be on paper, over the phone, on floppy disk or magnetic tape. When you use a computer not connected to a network, you are working in ...

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